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Den Bechdel-Test oder Bechdel-Wallace-Test machte die amerikanische Cartoon-Zeichnerin und Autorin Alison Bechdel in ihrem Comic „Dykes to Watch Out For“ bekannt. Er ist kein wissenschaftlicher Test, wird jedoch herangezogen, um. Den Bechdel-Test oder Bechdel-Wallace-Test machte die amerikanische Cartoon-Zeichnerin und Autorin Alison Bechdel in ihrem Comic „Dykes to Watch. Mit nur wenigen Fragen kann man einen Film darauf überprüfen, ob er Frauenfiguren wirklich Ernst nimmt. So funktioniert der Bechdel-Test! Der Bechdel-Tests soll zeigen, wie Frauen in Spielfilmen dargestellt werden: Ob sie als Hauptfiguren unabhängig von männlichen Rollen. Der Bechdel-Test enttarnt Sexismus in Spielfilmen. Anhand von nur drei kleinen Anforderungen.
Mit dem Bechdel-Test kann man auf einfache Weise Filme auf Rollenklischées der Frau untersuchen. Dafür braucht man nur drei Fragen. Der Bechdel-Test enttarnt Sexismus in Spielfilmen. Anhand von nur drei kleinen Anforderungen. Den Bechdel-Test oder Bechdel-Wallace-Test machte die amerikanische Cartoon-Zeichnerin und Autorin Alison Bechdel in ihrem Comic „Dykes to Watch. Weil seine Freundin schwanger ist und er deshalb sein Einkommen aufbessern will, steigt der Masseur David in die Waffenhandelsfirma seines Schulfreundes Efraim ein. Mehr zum Projekt finden Sie hier. Diese TopFilme haben den Test bestanden. STAND Man muss interagieren sagen, denn als Gespräch kann man diese Stöhnorgie article source bezeichnen. Die spannendsten Initiativen haben wir hier für Sie zusammengestellt. Diese Marvel-Filme solltest du am bechdel test vorher schauen, um wirklich alles click to see more checken! Gibt es in dem Film mindestens zwei Frauen, leon seidel einen Namen haben? Vier schwedische Kinos weisen nun aus, welche Filme den Test bestanden haben - darunter finden sich auch einige Überraschungen. Der zweiterfolgreichste Film ever - Avatar - fällt durch!
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Five Feet Apart. For Sama. Ford v Ferrari. Frozen 2.Allerdings reicht es bei Frage drei zum Beispiel auch, dass sich die Frauen nur über Make-Up und Fingernägel unterhalten. Juni Man muss interagieren sagen, denn als Gespräch kann man diese Stöhnorgie kaum bezeichnen. Geht es in ihrem Gespräch um etwas anderes learn more here einen Mann? Zum Https://graenbycentrum.se/hd-filme-stream-kostenlos-ohne-anmeldung/doppelzimmer-fgr-drei.php haben bekannte Hollywood-Filme damit getestet. Bechdel credited the idea to her friend Liz Wallace and the writings of Virginia Woolf. Bad Boys For Life. Dora and the Lost City check this out Gold. Isn't It Romantic. With reference to: Rtl livestream, Stacy Https://graenbycentrum.se/3d-filme-stream/yugioh-joey.php. Triple Frontier.
First Known Use of Bechdel Test , in the meaning defined above. History and Etymology for Bechdel Test after Alison Bechdel born American cartoonist, who introduced the test in a comic strip in , and her friend Liz Wallace, whom the cartoonist credits with creation of the test.
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About half of all films meet these criteria, according to user-edited databases and the media industry press.
Passing or failing the test is not necessarily indicative of how well women are represented in any specific work.
Rather, the test is used as an indicator for the active presence of women in the entire field of film and other fiction, and to call attention to gender inequality in fiction.
Media industry studies indicate that films that pass the test perform better financially than those that do not. The test is named after the American cartoonist Alison Bechdel in whose comic strip Dykes to Watch Out For the test first appeared.
Bechdel credited the idea to her friend Liz Wallace and the writings of Virginia Woolf. After the test became more widely discussed in the s, a number of variants and tests inspired by it emerged.
In her essay A Room of One's Own , Virginia Woolf observed about the literature of her time what the Bechdel test would later highlight in more recent fiction: .
All these relationships between women, I thought, rapidly recalling the splendid gallery of fictitious women, are too simple.
And I tried to remember any case in the course of my reading where two women are represented as friends. They are now and then mothers and daughters.
But almost without exception they are shown in their relation to men. It was strange to think that all the great women of fiction were, until Jane Austen 's day, not only seen by the other sex, but seen only in relation to the other sex.
And how small a part of a woman's life is that In film, a study of gender portrayals in of the most financially successful U. Female characters were portrayed as being involved in sex twice as often as male characters, and their proportion of scenes with explicit sexual content increased over time.
Violence increased over time in male and female characters alike. In a strip titled "The Rule", two women, who resemble the future characters Mo and Ginger,  discuss seeing a film and one woman explains that she only goes to a movie if it satisfies the following requirements:.
The other woman acknowledges that the idea is pretty strict, but good. Not finding any films that meet their requirements, they go home together.
The test has also been referred to as the "Bechdel—Wallace test"  which Bechdel herself prefers ,  the "Bechdel rule",  "Bechdel's law",  or the "Mo Movie Measure".
Several variants of the test have been proposed—for example, that the two women must be named characters,  or that there must be at least a total of 60 seconds of conversation.
According to Neda Ulaby , the test resonates because "it articulates something often missing in popular culture: not the number of women we see on screen, but the depth of their stories, and the range of their concerns.
Originally meant as "a little lesbian joke in an alternative feminist newspaper", according to Bechdel,  the test moved into mainstream criticism in the s and has been described as "the standard by which feminist critics judge television, movies, books, and other media".
In , the European cinema fund Eurimages incorporated the Bechdel test into its submission mechanism as part of an effort to collect information about gender equality in its projects.
It requires "a Bechdel analysis of the script to be supplied by the script readers". In , screenwriting software developers began incorporating functions that allow writers to analyze their scripts for gender representation.
In addition to films, the Bechdel test has been applied to other media such as video games    and comics. The website bechdeltest.
According to Mark Harris of Entertainment Weekly , if passing the test were mandatory, it would have jeopardized half of the Academy Award for Best Picture nominees.
Writer Charles Stross noted that about half of the films that do pass the test only do so because the women talk about marriage or babies.
The television series Sex and the City highlights its own failure to pass the test by having one of the four female main characters ask: "How does it happen that four such smart women have nothing to talk about but boyfriends?
It's like seventh grade with bank accounts! Several analyses have indicated that passing the Bechdel test is an indicator of a film's financial success.
It found that the films that passed the test had about a 37 percent higher return on investment ROI in the United States, and the same ROI internationally, compared to films that did not pass the test.
In , the Creative Artists Agency and Shift7 analyzed revenue and budget data from the top-grossing films of to in the United States. They noted that all films since who took in more than one billion dollars in revenue passed the test.
Explanations that have been offered as to why many films fail the Bechdel test include the relative lack of gender diversity among scriptwriters  and other movie professionals, also called the " celluloid ceiling ": In , one in six of the directors, writers, and producers behind the most commercially successful movies in the United States was a woman.
Writing in the American conservative magazine National Review in , film critic Kyle Smith suggested that the reason for the Bechdel test results was that "Hollywood movies are about people on the extremes of society — cops, criminals, superheroes — [which] tend to be men".
Such films, according to Smith, were more often created by men because "women's movie ideas" were mostly about relationships and "aren't commercial enough for Hollywood studios".
Rowling , Margaret Atwood and Nnedi Okorafor among others as counter-examples. The Bechdel test only indicates whether women are present in a work of fiction to a certain degree.
A work may pass the test and still contain sexist content, and a work with prominent female characters may fail the test.
For example, the Sir Mix-a-Lot song " Baby Got Back " has been described as passing the Bechdel test, because it begins with a valley girl saying to another "oh my god, Becky, look at her butt".
In an attempt at a quantitative analysis of works as to whether they pass the test, at least one researcher, Faith Lawrence, noted that the results depend on how rigorously the test is applied.
For example, if a man is mentioned at any point in a conversation that also covers other topics, it is not clear whether this means that the conversation meets or fails the test.
Another question is how one defines the start and end of a conversation. In response to its increasing ubiquity in film criticism, the Bechdel test has been criticized for not taking into account the quality of the works it tests bad films may pass it, and good ones fail , or as a "nefarious plot to make all movies conform to feminist dogma".
Where Bechdel and Wallace expressed it as simply a way to point out the rote, unthinkingly normative plotlines of mainstream film, these days passing it has somehow become synonymous with 'being feminist'.
It was never meant to be a measure of feminism, but rather a cultural barometer. Similarly, the critic Alyssa Rosenberg expressed concern that the Bechdel test could become another "fig leaf" for the entertainment industry, who could just "slap a few lines of dialogue onto a hundred-and-forty-minute compilation of CGI explosions" to pass off the result as feminist.
The Telegraph film critic Robbie Collin disapproved of the test as prizing "box-ticking and stat-hoarding over analysis and appreciation", and suggested that the underlying problem of the lack of well-drawn female characters in film ought to be a topic of discourse, rather than individual films failing or passing the Bechdel test.
Nina Power wrote that the test raises the questions of whether fiction has a duty to represent women rather than to pursue whatever the creator's own agenda might be and to be "realistic" in the representation of women.
She also wrote that it remained to be determined how often real life passes the Bechdel test, and what the influence of fiction on that might be.
The Bechdel test has inspired others, notably feminist and antiracist critics and fans, to formulate criteria for evaluating works of fiction, in part because of the Bechdel test's limitations.
The " Mako Mori test ", formulated by Tumblr user "Chaila"  and named after the only significant female character of the film Pacific Rim , asks whether a female character has a narrative arc that is not about supporting a man's story.