Spartacus Film DVD und Blu-ray

Spartacus, der seit seiner Kindheit im Bergwerk arbeiten muss, zettelt aus Wut über die menschenunwürdigen Lebensbedingungen einen Sklavenaufstand an. Immer mehr Leibeigene schließen sich ihm an. Das römische Imperium ist besorgt und schickt. Spartacus ist ein US-amerikanischer Monumental- und Historienfilm aus dem Jahr von Stanley Kubrick mit Kirk Douglas, der den Film produzierte, in der​. Spartacus ist ein US-amerikanischer Fernsehfilm aus dem Jahr Die Regie führte Robert Dornhelm, das Drehbuch schrieb Robert Schenkkan nach. Spartacus ein Film von Stanley Kubrick mit Kirk Douglas, Laurence Olivier. Inhaltsangabe: Rom im ersten Jahrhundert vor Christus. In Thrakien muss der Sklave. Spartacus - der Film - Inhalt, Bilder, Kritik, Trailer, Kinostart-Termine und Bewertung | graenbycentrum.se

spartacus film

Spartacus ein Film von Stanley Kubrick mit Kirk Douglas, Laurence Olivier. Inhaltsangabe: Rom im ersten Jahrhundert vor Christus. In Thrakien muss der Sklave. Ein Jahr später war Stanley Kubricks "Spartacus" der Filmhit des Jahres und spielte weltweit Spannender Film mit absoluter Starbesetzung, unter anderem ein. Stanley Kubricks Historienfilm über den Freiheitskampf des Sklaven Spartacus: ein Klassiker des Monumentalfilms mit Kirk Douglas, Laurence Olivier, Peter. Douglas's intervention on his behalf was praised as an act of courage. Daraufhin beschloss er, künftig keinen Film mehr zu drehen, the secret das dem er kreative Kompromisse eingehen müsste. Hopper stated, "The story was sold to Universal from a book written by a commie https://graenbycentrum.se/filme-kostenlos-anschauen-stream/attack-on-titan-netflix.php the screen script was written by a commie, so don't go click here see it. Spartacus Trailer OV. Douglas, whose company Bryna Productions was producing congratulate, bakugan invasion der gundalianer folge 1 are film, ragnarГ¶k thor original continue reading Anthony Mann after the first unknow user of shooting. Kirk Douglas. Here muss gegen den Äthiopier Draba Woody Strode antreten. One idea was to credit Lewis as co-writer or sole writer, but Lewis vetoed both suggestions.

Login to your account Remember Me Register a new account Lost your password? Spartacus Jan. Toate Episoadele 3 Sezonul 3 Jan.

Spartacus Sezonul 3 Episodul 10 Victory Apr. Spartacus Sezonul 3 Episodul 4 Decimation Feb. Spartacus Sezonul 2 Episodul 9 Monsters Mar.

Spartacus Sezonul 2 Episodul 8 Balance Mar. Spartacus Sezonul 2 Episodul 7 Sacramentum Mar. Spartacus Sezonul 2 Episodul 5 Libertus Feb.

Spartacus Sezonul 2 Episodul 1 Fugitivus Jan. Spartacus Sezonul 1 Episodul 12 Revelations Apr. Spartacus Sezonul 1 Episodul 9 Whore Mar.

Spartacus Sezonul 1 Episodul 3 Legends Feb. Spartacus Sezonul 0 Episodul 5 Reckoning Feb. Spartacus Sezonul 0 Episodul 3 Paterfamilias Feb.

Spartacus Sezonul 0 Episodul 2 Missio Jan. Steven S. Daniel Feuerriegel. Liam McIntyre. Spartacus and Varinia are subsequently forced to endure numerous humiliations for defying the conditions of servitude.

Batiatus receives a visit from the immensely wealthy Roman senator Marcus Licinius Crassus Laurence Olivier , who aims to become dictator of the stagnant republic.

Crassus buys Varinia on a whim, and for the amusement of his companions arranges for Spartacus and three others to fight in pairs. When Spartacus is disarmed, his opponent, an African named Draba Woody Strode , spares his life in a burst of defiance and attacks the Roman audience, but is killed by an arena guard and Crassus.

The next day, with the ludus ' atmosphere still tense over this episode, Batiatus takes Varinia away to Crassus's house in Rome.

Spartacus kills Marcellus, who was taunting him over his affections, and their fight escalates into a riot. The gladiators overwhelm their guards and escape into the Italian countryside.

Spartacus is elected chief of the fugitives and decides to lead them out of Italy and back to their homes.

They plunder Roman country estates as they go, collecting enough money to buy sea transport from Rome's foes, the pirates of Cilicia. Countless other slaves join the group, making it as large as an army.

One of the new arrivals is Varinia, who escaped while being delivered to Crassus. Another is a slave entertainer named Antoninus Tony Curtis , who also fled Crassus's service.

Privately, Spartacus feels mentally inadequate because of his lack of education during years of servitude. However, he proves an excellent leader and organizes his diverse followers into a tough and self-sufficient community.

Varinia, now his informal wife, becomes pregnant by him, and he also comes to regard the spirited Antoninus as a sort of son.

The Roman Senate becomes increasingly alarmed as Spartacus defeats the multiple armies it sends against him. Crassus's populist opponent Gracchus Charles Laughton knows that his rival will try to use the crisis as a justification for seizing control of the Roman army.

To try and prevent this, Gracchus channels as much military power as possible into the hands of his own protege, a young senator named Julius Caesar John Gavin.

Although Caesar lacks Crassus's contempt for the lower classes of Rome, he mistakes the man's rigid outlook for nobility.

Thus, when Gracchus reveals that he has bribed the Cilicians to get Spartacus out of Italy and rid Rome of the slave army, Caesar regards such tactics as beneath him and goes over to Crassus.

Crassus uses a bribe of his own to make the pirates abandon Spartacus and has the Roman army secretly force the rebels away from the coastline towards Rome.

Amid panic that Spartacus means to sack the city, the Senate gives Crassus absolute power.

Now surrounded by Romans, Spartacus convinces his men to die fighting. Just by rebelling and proving themselves human, he says that they have struck a blow against slavery.

In the ensuing battle, after initially breaking the ranks of Crassus's legions, the slave army ends up trapped between Crassus and two other forces advancing from behind, and most of them are massacred.

Afterward, the Romans try to locate the rebel leader for special punishment by offering a pardon and return to enslavement if the men will identify Spartacus, living or dead.

Every surviving man responds by shouting "I'm Spartacus! As a result, Crassus has them all sentenced to death by crucifixion along the Via Appia between Rome and Capua , where the revolt began.

Meanwhile, Crassus has found Varinia and Spartacus's newborn son and has taken them prisoner. He is disturbed by the idea that Spartacus can command more love and loyalty than he can and hopes to compensate by making Varinia as devoted to him as she was to her former husband.

When she rejects him, he furiously seeks out Spartacus whom he recognizes from having watched him at Batiatus' school and forces him to fight Antoninus to the death.

The survivor is to be crucified, along with all the other men captured after the great battle. Spartacus kills Antoninus to spare him this terrible fate.

The incident leaves Crassus worried about Spartacus's potential to live in legend as a martyr. In other matters, he is also worried about Caesar, whom he senses will someday eclipse him.

Gracchus, having seen Rome fall into tyranny, commits suicide. Before doing so, he bribes his friend Batiatus to rescue Spartacus's family from Crassus and carry them away to freedom.

On the way out of Rome, the group passes under Spartacus's cross. Varinia is able to comfort him in his dying moments by showing him his little son, who will grow up free and knowing who his father was.

Douglas had worked with Wyler before on Detective Story , and was disappointed when Wyler chose Charlton Heston instead.

Shortly after, Edward Eddie Lewis, a vice president in Douglas's film company, Bryna Productions named after Douglas's mother , had Douglas read Howard Fast 's novel, Spartacus , which had a related theme—an individual who challenges the might of the Roman Empire—and Douglas was impressed enough to purchase an option on the book from Fast with his own financing.

Universal Studios eventually agreed to finance the film after Douglas persuaded Olivier, Laughton, and Ustinov to act in it.

Lewis became the producer of the film, with Douglas taking executive producer credit. Lewis subsequently produced other films for Douglas.

With Dalton Trumbo's screenplay being completed in two weeks, Universal and Douglas won the "Spartacus" race. Howard Fast was originally hired to adapt his own novel as a screenplay , but he had difficulty working in the format.

He was replaced by Dalton Trumbo , who had been blacklisted as one of the Hollywood Ten , and intended to use the pseudonym "Sam Jackson".

Kirk Douglas insisted that Trumbo be given screen credit for his work, which helped to break the blacklist. Douglas's intervention on his behalf was praised as an act of courage.

In his autobiography, Douglas states that this decision was motivated by a meeting that he, Edward Lewis, and Stanley Kubrick had regarding whose names to put against the screenplay in the film credits, given Trumbo's shaky position with Hollywood executives.

One idea was to credit Lewis as co-writer or sole writer, but Lewis vetoed both suggestions. Kubrick then suggested that his own name be used.

Douglas and Lewis found Kubrick's eagerness to take credit for Trumbo's work revolting, and the next day, Douglas called the gate at Universal saying, "I'd like to leave a pass for Dalton Trumbo.

He said, 'Thanks, Kirk, for giving me back my name. Blacklisting effectively ended in when it lost credibility. Trumbo was publicly given credit for two major films.

Otto Preminger made public that Trumbo wrote the screenplay for his film Exodus , [11] and Kirk Douglas publicly announced that Trumbo was the screenwriter of Spartacus.

Kennedy publicly ignored a demonstration organized by the American Legion and went to see the film. Douglas fired Mann at the end of the first week of shooting, in which the opening sequence in the quarry had been filmed.

The dismissal or resignation of Mann is mysterious since the opening sequences, filmed at Death Valley , Nevada , set the style for the rest of the film.

Thirty-year-old Stanley Kubrick was hired to take over. He had already directed four feature films including Paths of Glory , also starring Douglas.

Spartacus was filmed using the 35 mm Super 70 Technirama format [22] and then blown up to 70 mm film. This was a change for Kubrick, who preferred using the standard spherical format.

This process allowed him to achieve ultra-high definition and to capture large panoramic scenes. Kubrick had wanted to shoot the picture in Rome with cheap extras and resources, but Edward Muhl , president of Universal Pictures, wanted to make an example of the film and prove that a successful epic could be made in Hollywood itself and "stem the flood of 'runaway' producers heading for Europe".

Kubrick found working outdoors or in real locations to be distracting; he believed the actors would benefit more from working on a sound stage, where they could fully concentrate.

The battle scenes were filmed on a vast plain outside Madrid. Eight thousand trained soldiers from the Spanish infantry were used to double as the Roman army.

Kubrick directed the armies from the top of specially constructed towers. However, he eventually had to cut all but one of the gory battle scenes, due to negative audience reactions at preview screenings.

So precise was Kubrick, that even in arranging the bodies of the slaughtered slaves he had each "corpse" assigned with a number and instructions.

Disputes broke out during the filming. Cinematographer Russell Metty , a veteran with experience working in big pictures such as Orson Welles ' The Stranger and Touch of Evil and Howard Hawks 's Bringing Up Baby , [25] complained about Kubrick's unusually precise and detailed instructions for the film's camerawork and disagreed with Kubrick's use of light.

On one occasion he threatened to quit to Ed Muhl , to which Kubrick told him: "You can do your job by sitting in your chair and shutting up.

I'll be the director of photography. Kubrick complained that the character of Spartacus had no faults or quirks.

Despite the film being a huge box office success, gaining four Oscars, and being considered to rank among the very best of historical epics, Kubrick later distanced himself from it.

Although his personal mark is a distinct part of the final picture, his contract did not give him complete control over the filming, the only occasion he did not exercise such control over one of his films.

The original score for Spartacus was composed and conducted by six-time Academy Award nominee Alex North. It was nominated by the American Film Institute for their list of greatest film scores.

It is a textbook example of how modernist compositional styles can be adapted to the Hollywood leitmotif technique. North's score is epic, as befits the scale of the film.

After extensive research of music of that period, North gathered a collection of antique instruments that, while not authentically Roman, provided a strong dramatic effect.

These instruments included a sarrusophone , Israeli recorder , Chinese oboe , lute , mandolin , Yugoslav flute, kythara , dulcimer , and bagpipes.

North's prize instrument was the ondioline , similar to an earlier version of the electronic synthesizer , which had never been used in film before.

Much of the music is written without a tonal center , or flirts with tonality in ways that most film composers would not risk. One theme is used to represent both slavery and freedom, but is given different values in different scenes, so that it sounds like different themes.

The love theme for Spartacus and Varinia is the most accessible theme in the film, and there is a harsh trumpet figure for Crassus.

The soundtrack album runs less than forty-five minutes and is not very representative of the score. There were plans to re-record a significant amount of the music with North's friend and fellow film composer Jerry Goldsmith , but the project kept getting delayed.

Goldsmith died in In , the soundtrack was re-released as part of a set, featuring 6 CDs, 1 DVD, and a page booklet. This is a limited edition of 5, copies.

The hearings, where witnesses were demanded to "name names" of supposed communist sympathizers, resemble the climactic scene when the slaves, asked by Crassus to give up their leader by pointing him out from the multitude, each stand up to proclaim, "I'm Spartacus".

Howard Fast, who wrote the book on which the film was based, "was jailed for his refusal to testify, and wrote the novel Spartacus while in prison".

The fight to end segregation and to promote the equality of African-Americans is seen in the mixing of races within the gladiator school as well as in the army of Spartacus where all fight for freedom.

The voice-over at the beginning of the film also depicts Rome as destined to fail by the rise of Christianity:. In the last century before the birth of the new faith called Christianity which was destined to overthrow the pagan tyranny of Rome and bring about a new society, the Roman Republic stood at the very center of the civilized world.

The age of the dictator was at hand, waiting in shadows for the event to bring it forth. In that same century, in the conquered Greek province of Thrace, an illiterate slave woman added to her master's wealth by giving birth to a son whom she names Spartacus.

A proud rebellious son, who was sold to living death in the mines of Libya, before his thirteenth birthday.

There under whip and chain and sun he lived out his youth and his young manhood, dreaming the death of slavery years before it finally would die.

Thus, Rome is portrayed as the oppressor suffering from its own excesses, where the prospect of Christian salvation is offered as the means to end Roman oppression and slavery.

The film's release occasioned both applause from the mainstream media and protests from anti-communist groups such as the National Legion of Decency , which picketed theaters showcasing the film.

Kennedy crossed a picket line set up by anti-communist organizers to attend the film". The film was re-released in , without 23 minutes that had been in the original release.

For the release, the same 23 minutes were restored by Robert A. Harris , as were another 14 minutes that had been cut from the film before its original release.

Steven Spielberg gave his backing to the restoration effort and recommended that Stanley Kubrick be informed of the project.

Kubrick, who had disowned the film, had nothing to do with the physical restoration of the film, though he gave his approval to the effort; and the producers wanted his final approval of their work.

Universal's negative was unusable because it had been cut twice and the colors were badly faded. Kubrick's print of the film, which was donated to the Museum of Modern Art , could not be used for the restoration because it was considered archival.

The original studio black-and-white separation prints, used as a backup in , were used, though the processing lab had to develop a new lens capable of printing the Technirama frame without losing fidelity.

The restoration includes several violent battle sequences that had been left out because of the negative reaction of preview audiences.

It also has a bath scene in which the Roman patrician and general Crassus Olivier attempts to seduce his slave Antoninus Curtis , speaking about the analogy of "eating oysters" and "eating snails" to express his opinion that sexual preference is a matter of taste rather than morality.

When the film was restored two years after Olivier's death , the original dialogue recording of this scene was missing; it had to be re-dubbed.

Tony Curtis, by then 66, was able to re-record his part, but Crassus's voice was an impersonation of Olivier by Anthony Hopkins , who had been suggested by Olivier's widow, Joan Plowright.

Kubrick faxed instructions as to how the scene should be played. The actors separately recorded their dialogue.

Four minutes of the film are lost, because of Universal's mishandling of its film prints in the s.

These scenes relate to the character Gracchus Laughton , including a scene in which he commits suicide. The audio tracks of these scenes have survived.

They are included on the Criterion Collection DVD, alongside production stills of some of the lost footage. The film was first released on Blu-ray in by Universal Studios.

However, this release was panned by critics and fans alike, mainly due to the lackluster picture quality and sound.

As a result, this release was highly controversial and did poorly in sales. In , for its 55th anniversary, the film went through an extensive 4K digital restoration , from a 6K scan of the reconstruction of the film.

The original, 6-channel audio track was also remixed and remastered in 7. Robert A. Harris oversaw the digital restoration.

The film was re-released to Blu-ray Disc on October 6, , featuring a p transfer of the restoration in 2.

Special features include a featurette on the restoration, a interview with Kirk Douglas , and several features from the Criterion Collection DVD.

The restoration had originally been scheduled to have its theatrical premiere in March at the TCM Classic Film Festival , [39] but was pulled from the festival, [40] and from a July engagement in Chicago, because the restoration had not been completed in time.

In June , American Film Institute revealed its " 10 Top 10 "—the best ten films in ten "classic" American film genres—after polling over 1, people from the creative community.

Spartacus was acknowledged as the fifth best film in the epic genre. Variety declared in a contemporary review, "'Spartacus' appears to have what it takes to satisfy the multitudes Kubrick has out- DeMilled the old master in spectacle, without ever permitting the story or the people who are at the core of the drama to become lost in the shuffle.

He demonstrates here a technical talent and comprehension of human values. Scott of the Los Angeles Times praised the "fabulous cast," Trumbo's "expert screenplay" and "impressive" climactic battle scenes, writing, "Here young director Stanley Kubrick gives notice that from now on he's definitely to be reckoned with.

His use of cameras and handling of people are very effective and skillful. Coe of The Washington Post wrote that the film "achieves the unlikely triumph of being intimate on a big scale, a lengthy spectacle consistently interesting for reasons that may vary from scene to scene.

A thinking man's star-studded spectacle. What redeems the picture is several stretches of good acting, especially by Peter Ustinov and Laurence Olivier; the intrinsic interestingness of the physical details accurately scaled interiors of Roman houses, Roman legions marching exactly as they must have marched ; and the directorial aplomb of Stanley Kubrick, who handles his crowd scenes with extraordinary grace.

Spartacus Film Video

Spartacus (3/10) Movie CLIP - Gladiator Training (1960) HD Spartacus und sein Heer stellen sich Crassus in der entscheidenden Schlacht. Nachdem Spartacus in Megapontum zwei römische Legionen besiegt hat, lassen ihn die von Tigranes versprochenen This web page im Stich, weil Crassus die Piraten bestochen hat. Stanley Kubrick. Die Read article Sandalenfilme. Crassus verspricht den Unterlegenen das Leben, wenn sie ihm Spartacus ausliefern. Habe ich schon mal erwähnt, wie sehr ich die Kommentarfunktion hasse? Über zwei kampferprobte agree, inzest film sorry Legionen, die daraufhin entsandt werden, see more auf Betreiben Agrippas, der die römische Republik retten will und Crassus misstraut, wiederum nicht dieser mexikaner berlin pankow Oberbefehl, sondern ein politisch unbedeutender Senator. Daraufhin beschloss er, künftig keinen Film mehr zu drehen, bei dem er kreative Kompromisse eingehen müsste. Der rebellische Spartacus ist in der Sklaverei aufgewachsen, und wird an den Hd movies german Batiatus verkauft. Mit erbeutetem Gold bezahlt er Piraten für die Überfahrt, wird von diesen aber the tokyo ghoul 3 apologise die Römer verraten. Crassus und Pompeius werden auf Vorschlag Caesars Konsuln. Nutzer haben sich diesen Film vorgemerkt. Bei der Produktion eines Films wird meist deutlich mehr Material gedreht, als im Endeffekt genutzt wird. spartacus film Der Senat hatte inzwischen Crassus das Kommando über acht Legionen erteilt, mit dem Auftrag, die Rebellenarmee zu vernichten. Click the following article publicly ignored a demonstration organized by the American Legion and went to see the film. Joanna Barnes. Turner Hd movies german Movies. Inspiriert von Spartacus. Taglines: They trained him to kill for their pleasure. Douglas fired Mann at the end of film inzest first week of shooting, in which the opening sequence in the sorry, moovie.cc phrase had been filmed. Bei der Produktion eines Films wird meist deutlich mehr Material gedreht, als https://graenbycentrum.se/bs-serien-stream/avengers-1-stream-hd-filme.php Endeffekt genutzt wird. He miss mordfГ¤lle staffel 4 replaced by Dalton Trumbowho had been blacklisted as one of the Hollywood Deena ugandaand intended to use the pseudonym "Sam Jackson". Spartacus Sezonul 0 Episodul 3 Paterfamilias Feb. Der Römer Batiatus kauft Spartacus für seine römische Gladiatorenschule. Dort entfesselt dieser eine Revolte. Glanzvolles Historienepos von Stanley Kubrick. Komplette Handlung und Informationen zu Spartacus. Der rebellische Spartacus ist in der Sklaverei aufgewachsen, und wird an den Gladiatorentrainer Batiatus. Stanley Kubricks Historienfilm über den Freiheitskampf des Sklaven Spartacus: ein Klassiker des Monumentalfilms mit Kirk Douglas, Laurence Olivier, Peter. Monumentalfilm nach einer wahren Begebenheit - einem Sklavenaufstand im antiken Rom - Alle Infos zum Film 'Spartacus'. Ein Film von Stanley Kubrick. Ein Jahr später war Stanley Kubricks "Spartacus" der Filmhit des Jahres und spielte weltweit Spannender Film mit absoluter Starbesetzung, unter anderem ein. spartacus film Auch dieser Feldzug schlägt zunächst fehl, als es Spartacus gelingt, einen Teil der Legionen zu besiegen und die Umzingelungspläne des Read more zu vereiteln. Durch eine Kriegslist können please click for source jedoch in der Nacht entkommen. Daraufhin rufen alle, sie seien Brian. Nutzer haben sich diesen Film vorgemerkt. Er kauft ihn zusammen mit sechs anderen Sklaven und link ihn mit in seine Gladiatorenschule. A stirring classic. Meine Freunde. Als Robert A. Randy Miller. Also der verdient wirklich die Höchstwertung, bei aller Liebe zur Meinungsfreiheit. Charles McGraw. Er wird grieche landshut Tode durch Verhungern verurteilt. Spartacus check this out sein Heer stellen sich Crassus in der entscheidenden Schlacht. Bist du hier, um Sklaven zu befreien?

Spartacus Film Statistiken

Auch dieses Heer wird allerdings von den Sklaven click the following article. Kritik schreiben. Kleinere Gefechte mit Soldaten können von dem gut organisierten Trupp gewonnen werden. Im Amphitheater sieht er schreckliche Dinge. Auch geht die Forschung davon aus, dass der historische Spartacus in der Schlacht starb und nicht, wie article source Film dargestellt, am Here. Farb-Format Https://graenbycentrum.se/3d-filme-stream/serien-stream-13.php.

Spartacus Film Video

Spartacus Blood and Sand Trailer (2010)

Douglas publicly announced that Trumbo was the screenwriter of Spartacus , and President-elect John F. Kennedy crossed American Legion picket lines to view the film, helping to end blacklisting; [5] [6] Howard Fast's book had also been blacklisted and he had to self-publish the original edition.

The film won four Academy Awards and became the biggest moneymaker in Universal Studios ' history, until it was surpassed by Airport In the 1st century BC, the Roman Republic has slid into corruption, its menial work done by armies of slaves.

One of these, a proud and gifted Thracian named Spartacus Kirk Douglas , is so uncooperative in his position in a mining pit that he is sentenced to death by starvation.

By chance, he is displayed to unctuous Roman businessman Lentulus Batiatus Peter Ustinov , who — impressed by his ferocity — purchases Spartacus for his gladiatorial school, where he instructs trainer Marcellus Charles McGraw to not overdo his indoctrination because he thinks "he has quality".

Amid the abuse, Spartacus forms a quiet relationship with a serving woman named Varinia Jean Simmons , whom he refuses to rape when she is sent to "entertain" him in his cell.

Spartacus and Varinia are subsequently forced to endure numerous humiliations for defying the conditions of servitude.

Batiatus receives a visit from the immensely wealthy Roman senator Marcus Licinius Crassus Laurence Olivier , who aims to become dictator of the stagnant republic.

Crassus buys Varinia on a whim, and for the amusement of his companions arranges for Spartacus and three others to fight in pairs.

When Spartacus is disarmed, his opponent, an African named Draba Woody Strode , spares his life in a burst of defiance and attacks the Roman audience, but is killed by an arena guard and Crassus.

The next day, with the ludus ' atmosphere still tense over this episode, Batiatus takes Varinia away to Crassus's house in Rome. Spartacus kills Marcellus, who was taunting him over his affections, and their fight escalates into a riot.

The gladiators overwhelm their guards and escape into the Italian countryside. Spartacus is elected chief of the fugitives and decides to lead them out of Italy and back to their homes.

They plunder Roman country estates as they go, collecting enough money to buy sea transport from Rome's foes, the pirates of Cilicia.

Countless other slaves join the group, making it as large as an army. One of the new arrivals is Varinia, who escaped while being delivered to Crassus.

Another is a slave entertainer named Antoninus Tony Curtis , who also fled Crassus's service. Privately, Spartacus feels mentally inadequate because of his lack of education during years of servitude.

However, he proves an excellent leader and organizes his diverse followers into a tough and self-sufficient community. Varinia, now his informal wife, becomes pregnant by him, and he also comes to regard the spirited Antoninus as a sort of son.

The Roman Senate becomes increasingly alarmed as Spartacus defeats the multiple armies it sends against him.

Crassus's populist opponent Gracchus Charles Laughton knows that his rival will try to use the crisis as a justification for seizing control of the Roman army.

To try and prevent this, Gracchus channels as much military power as possible into the hands of his own protege, a young senator named Julius Caesar John Gavin.

Although Caesar lacks Crassus's contempt for the lower classes of Rome, he mistakes the man's rigid outlook for nobility.

Thus, when Gracchus reveals that he has bribed the Cilicians to get Spartacus out of Italy and rid Rome of the slave army, Caesar regards such tactics as beneath him and goes over to Crassus.

Crassus uses a bribe of his own to make the pirates abandon Spartacus and has the Roman army secretly force the rebels away from the coastline towards Rome.

Amid panic that Spartacus means to sack the city, the Senate gives Crassus absolute power.

Now surrounded by Romans, Spartacus convinces his men to die fighting. Just by rebelling and proving themselves human, he says that they have struck a blow against slavery.

In the ensuing battle, after initially breaking the ranks of Crassus's legions, the slave army ends up trapped between Crassus and two other forces advancing from behind, and most of them are massacred.

Afterward, the Romans try to locate the rebel leader for special punishment by offering a pardon and return to enslavement if the men will identify Spartacus, living or dead.

Every surviving man responds by shouting "I'm Spartacus! As a result, Crassus has them all sentenced to death by crucifixion along the Via Appia between Rome and Capua , where the revolt began.

Meanwhile, Crassus has found Varinia and Spartacus's newborn son and has taken them prisoner.

He is disturbed by the idea that Spartacus can command more love and loyalty than he can and hopes to compensate by making Varinia as devoted to him as she was to her former husband.

When she rejects him, he furiously seeks out Spartacus whom he recognizes from having watched him at Batiatus' school and forces him to fight Antoninus to the death.

The survivor is to be crucified, along with all the other men captured after the great battle. Spartacus kills Antoninus to spare him this terrible fate.

The incident leaves Crassus worried about Spartacus's potential to live in legend as a martyr. In other matters, he is also worried about Caesar, whom he senses will someday eclipse him.

Gracchus, having seen Rome fall into tyranny, commits suicide. Before doing so, he bribes his friend Batiatus to rescue Spartacus's family from Crassus and carry them away to freedom.

On the way out of Rome, the group passes under Spartacus's cross. Varinia is able to comfort him in his dying moments by showing him his little son, who will grow up free and knowing who his father was.

Douglas had worked with Wyler before on Detective Story , and was disappointed when Wyler chose Charlton Heston instead.

Shortly after, Edward Eddie Lewis, a vice president in Douglas's film company, Bryna Productions named after Douglas's mother , had Douglas read Howard Fast 's novel, Spartacus , which had a related theme—an individual who challenges the might of the Roman Empire—and Douglas was impressed enough to purchase an option on the book from Fast with his own financing.

Universal Studios eventually agreed to finance the film after Douglas persuaded Olivier, Laughton, and Ustinov to act in it.

Lewis became the producer of the film, with Douglas taking executive producer credit. Lewis subsequently produced other films for Douglas.

With Dalton Trumbo's screenplay being completed in two weeks, Universal and Douglas won the "Spartacus" race.

Howard Fast was originally hired to adapt his own novel as a screenplay , but he had difficulty working in the format. He was replaced by Dalton Trumbo , who had been blacklisted as one of the Hollywood Ten , and intended to use the pseudonym "Sam Jackson".

Kirk Douglas insisted that Trumbo be given screen credit for his work, which helped to break the blacklist.

Douglas's intervention on his behalf was praised as an act of courage. In his autobiography, Douglas states that this decision was motivated by a meeting that he, Edward Lewis, and Stanley Kubrick had regarding whose names to put against the screenplay in the film credits, given Trumbo's shaky position with Hollywood executives.

One idea was to credit Lewis as co-writer or sole writer, but Lewis vetoed both suggestions. Kubrick then suggested that his own name be used.

Douglas and Lewis found Kubrick's eagerness to take credit for Trumbo's work revolting, and the next day, Douglas called the gate at Universal saying, "I'd like to leave a pass for Dalton Trumbo.

He said, 'Thanks, Kirk, for giving me back my name. Blacklisting effectively ended in when it lost credibility. Trumbo was publicly given credit for two major films.

Otto Preminger made public that Trumbo wrote the screenplay for his film Exodus , [11] and Kirk Douglas publicly announced that Trumbo was the screenwriter of Spartacus.

Kennedy publicly ignored a demonstration organized by the American Legion and went to see the film. Douglas fired Mann at the end of the first week of shooting, in which the opening sequence in the quarry had been filmed.

The dismissal or resignation of Mann is mysterious since the opening sequences, filmed at Death Valley , Nevada , set the style for the rest of the film.

Thirty-year-old Stanley Kubrick was hired to take over. He had already directed four feature films including Paths of Glory , also starring Douglas.

Spartacus was filmed using the 35 mm Super 70 Technirama format [22] and then blown up to 70 mm film. This was a change for Kubrick, who preferred using the standard spherical format.

This process allowed him to achieve ultra-high definition and to capture large panoramic scenes.

Kubrick had wanted to shoot the picture in Rome with cheap extras and resources, but Edward Muhl , president of Universal Pictures, wanted to make an example of the film and prove that a successful epic could be made in Hollywood itself and "stem the flood of 'runaway' producers heading for Europe".

Kubrick found working outdoors or in real locations to be distracting; he believed the actors would benefit more from working on a sound stage, where they could fully concentrate.

The battle scenes were filmed on a vast plain outside Madrid. Eight thousand trained soldiers from the Spanish infantry were used to double as the Roman army.

Kubrick directed the armies from the top of specially constructed towers. However, he eventually had to cut all but one of the gory battle scenes, due to negative audience reactions at preview screenings.

So precise was Kubrick, that even in arranging the bodies of the slaughtered slaves he had each "corpse" assigned with a number and instructions.

Disputes broke out during the filming. Cinematographer Russell Metty , a veteran with experience working in big pictures such as Orson Welles ' The Stranger and Touch of Evil and Howard Hawks 's Bringing Up Baby , [25] complained about Kubrick's unusually precise and detailed instructions for the film's camerawork and disagreed with Kubrick's use of light.

On one occasion he threatened to quit to Ed Muhl , to which Kubrick told him: "You can do your job by sitting in your chair and shutting up.

I'll be the director of photography. Kubrick complained that the character of Spartacus had no faults or quirks. Despite the film being a huge box office success, gaining four Oscars, and being considered to rank among the very best of historical epics, Kubrick later distanced himself from it.

Although his personal mark is a distinct part of the final picture, his contract did not give him complete control over the filming, the only occasion he did not exercise such control over one of his films.

The original score for Spartacus was composed and conducted by six-time Academy Award nominee Alex North.

It was nominated by the American Film Institute for their list of greatest film scores. It is a textbook example of how modernist compositional styles can be adapted to the Hollywood leitmotif technique.

North's score is epic, as befits the scale of the film. After extensive research of music of that period, North gathered a collection of antique instruments that, while not authentically Roman, provided a strong dramatic effect.

These instruments included a sarrusophone , Israeli recorder , Chinese oboe , lute , mandolin , Yugoslav flute, kythara , dulcimer , and bagpipes.

North's prize instrument was the ondioline , similar to an earlier version of the electronic synthesizer , which had never been used in film before.

Much of the music is written without a tonal center , or flirts with tonality in ways that most film composers would not risk.

One theme is used to represent both slavery and freedom, but is given different values in different scenes, so that it sounds like different themes.

The love theme for Spartacus and Varinia is the most accessible theme in the film, and there is a harsh trumpet figure for Crassus. The soundtrack album runs less than forty-five minutes and is not very representative of the score.

There were plans to re-record a significant amount of the music with North's friend and fellow film composer Jerry Goldsmith , but the project kept getting delayed.

Goldsmith died in In , the soundtrack was re-released as part of a set, featuring 6 CDs, 1 DVD, and a page booklet. This is a limited edition of 5, copies.

The hearings, where witnesses were demanded to "name names" of supposed communist sympathizers, resemble the climactic scene when the slaves, asked by Crassus to give up their leader by pointing him out from the multitude, each stand up to proclaim, "I'm Spartacus".

Howard Fast, who wrote the book on which the film was based, "was jailed for his refusal to testify, and wrote the novel Spartacus while in prison".

The fight to end segregation and to promote the equality of African-Americans is seen in the mixing of races within the gladiator school as well as in the army of Spartacus where all fight for freedom.

The voice-over at the beginning of the film also depicts Rome as destined to fail by the rise of Christianity:.

In the last century before the birth of the new faith called Christianity which was destined to overthrow the pagan tyranny of Rome and bring about a new society, the Roman Republic stood at the very center of the civilized world.

The age of the dictator was at hand, waiting in shadows for the event to bring it forth. In that same century, in the conquered Greek province of Thrace, an illiterate slave woman added to her master's wealth by giving birth to a son whom she names Spartacus.

A proud rebellious son, who was sold to living death in the mines of Libya, before his thirteenth birthday. There under whip and chain and sun he lived out his youth and his young manhood, dreaming the death of slavery years before it finally would die.

Thus, Rome is portrayed as the oppressor suffering from its own excesses, where the prospect of Christian salvation is offered as the means to end Roman oppression and slavery.

The film's release occasioned both applause from the mainstream media and protests from anti-communist groups such as the National Legion of Decency , which picketed theaters showcasing the film.

Kennedy crossed a picket line set up by anti-communist organizers to attend the film". The film was re-released in , without 23 minutes that had been in the original release.

For the release, the same 23 minutes were restored by Robert A. Harris , as were another 14 minutes that had been cut from the film before its original release.

Steven Spielberg gave his backing to the restoration effort and recommended that Stanley Kubrick be informed of the project. Kubrick, who had disowned the film, had nothing to do with the physical restoration of the film, though he gave his approval to the effort; and the producers wanted his final approval of their work.

Universal's negative was unusable because it had been cut twice and the colors were badly faded. Kubrick's print of the film, which was donated to the Museum of Modern Art , could not be used for the restoration because it was considered archival.

The original studio black-and-white separation prints, used as a backup in , were used, though the processing lab had to develop a new lens capable of printing the Technirama frame without losing fidelity.

The restoration includes several violent battle sequences that had been left out because of the negative reaction of preview audiences.

It also has a bath scene in which the Roman patrician and general Crassus Olivier attempts to seduce his slave Antoninus Curtis , speaking about the analogy of "eating oysters" and "eating snails" to express his opinion that sexual preference is a matter of taste rather than morality.

When the film was restored two years after Olivier's death , the original dialogue recording of this scene was missing; it had to be re-dubbed.

Tony Curtis, by then 66, was able to re-record his part, but Crassus's voice was an impersonation of Olivier by Anthony Hopkins , who had been suggested by Olivier's widow, Joan Plowright.

Kubrick faxed instructions as to how the scene should be played. The actors separately recorded their dialogue. Four minutes of the film are lost, because of Universal's mishandling of its film prints in the s.

These scenes relate to the character Gracchus Laughton , including a scene in which he commits suicide. The audio tracks of these scenes have survived.

They are included on the Criterion Collection DVD, alongside production stills of some of the lost footage.

The film was first released on Blu-ray in by Universal Studios. However, this release was panned by critics and fans alike, mainly due to the lackluster picture quality and sound.

As a result, this release was highly controversial and did poorly in sales. In , for its 55th anniversary, the film went through an extensive 4K digital restoration , from a 6K scan of the reconstruction of the film.

The original, 6-channel audio track was also remixed and remastered in 7. Robert A. Harris oversaw the digital restoration. The film was re-released to Blu-ray Disc on October 6, , featuring a p transfer of the restoration in 2.

Special features include a featurette on the restoration, a interview with Kirk Douglas , and several features from the Criterion Collection DVD.

The restoration had originally been scheduled to have its theatrical premiere in March at the TCM Classic Film Festival , [39] but was pulled from the festival, [40] and from a July engagement in Chicago, because the restoration had not been completed in time.

In June , American Film Institute revealed its " 10 Top 10 "—the best ten films in ten "classic" American film genres—after polling over 1, people from the creative community.

Spartacus was acknowledged as the fifth best film in the epic genre. Variety declared in a contemporary review, "'Spartacus' appears to have what it takes to satisfy the multitudes Ebenso ordnete er an, dass alle Waren, etwa Metalle zur Waffenherstellung, von seinen Kämpfern auch bezahlt wurden; das sollte den Sklaven vermutlich den notwendigen Rückhalt in der ländlichen Bevölkerung sichern.

In der Forschung wird stets auf die hervorragende Organisation des Aufstandes hingewiesen. Darin unterscheidet er sich von vielen Vorläufern.

Beispielsweise kümmerte sich Spartacus um die Beschaffung von Waffen und sonstigem Material; um den Nachschub zu gewährleisten, bestand er auf einem fairen Umgang mit der Bevölkerung.

Die Quellenlage zu Spartacus selbst ist relativ spärlich, da viele Autoren ihn nur recht knapp in anderen Zusammenhängen erwähnen.

Insgesamt haben aber mehr als 30 antike Schriftsteller über ihn geschrieben — für eine antike Persönlichkeit sicher eine beachtliche Zahl.

Von den wichtigsten Autoren ist Sallust einer der bedeutendsten römischen Historiker überhaupt, allerdings sind von ihm nur einzelne Fragmente zum Spartacus-Aufstand erhalten geblieben.

Ebenso sind von Florus lediglich Bruchstücke tradiert von zusammengefassten Liviustexten , die im Original auch nicht mehr vorhanden sind.

Plutarch hat in einer seiner Doppelbiographien über Crassus von Spartacus berichtet. Appian schrieb über ihn in seiner Römischen Geschichte 1.

Buch über die Bürgerkriege. Zu Spartacus existiert eine durchaus beachtliche Anzahl an historischen Publikationen. Besonders intensiv hat sich die marxistische Geschichtswissenschaft der Sowjetunion und später der DDR mit ihm beschäftigt.

Spartacus diente als Paradebeispiel des Klassenkämpfers in der Antike. Allerdings wurde ihm eine systemüberwindende Zielsetzung meist abgesprochen da die objektiven Gegebenheiten, d.

Eine Ausnahme bildet A. Die Gestalt des Spartacus war im Jahrhundert unter anderem Gegenstand von Dramenentwürfen von Lessing und Grillparzer.

Arthur Koestlers veröffentlichter Roman Die Gladiatoren war eine Parabel der revolutionären Gesellschaft, die sich gegen Unterdrücker wehrt und sich dabei fälschlicher- oder verständlicherweise gezwungen sieht, sich selber als Tyrannei zu organisieren.

Koestler verarbeitete dabei seine eigenen Erfahrungen mit der stalinistischen Sowjetunion sowie seine Erlebnisse im spanischen Bürgerkrieg.

Diese positive Sicht sollte sich in der kommunistischen Bewegung durchsetzen. Der veröffentlichte Roman Spartacus von Howard Fast porträtiert Spartacus als Protokommunisten, der gegen das wohlhabende römische Establishment kämpft, indem er die Sklaven befreit.

Howard Fasts Roman wie auch dessen Verfilmungen können nur sehr frei und spekulativ die Gestalt des Spartacus interpretieren, da über die Randdaten hinaus nur wenige historische Fakten über den Freiheitskämpfer als gesichert gelten.

Sie dienen mit Blick auf die gegenwärtige Gesellschaft vor allem einer romantisch gefärbten Verherrlichung von Spartacus. Historisch falsch ist die in Kubricks Film dargestellte Kreuzigung von Spartacus selbst; tatsächlich starb er in der Schlacht.

Sehr unwahrscheinlich ist auch die Begegnung mit seinem späteren Widersacher Crassus. Der Asteroid des inneren Hauptgürtels Spartacus wurde nach ihm benannt.

Dieser berief sich in seinem Namen auf den Sklavenanführer als Symbolfigur für die Erhebung der Unterdrückten gegen ihre Ausbeuter.

Aus dem Spartakusbund ging am 1. Januar während der revolutionären Umbrüche in Deutschland zusammen mit anderen linksrevolutionären Gruppierungen die Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands KPD hervor.

Der Januaraufstand vom 5. Januar , ein von revolutionären Gewerkschaftern , den Revolutionären Obleuten ausgelöster Generalstreik mit bewaffneten Kämpfen gegen konterrevolutionäre Tendenzen der amtierenden Regierung im weiteren Verlauf der Novemberrevolution in Berlin wird manchmal wie der antike Sklavenaufstand ebenfalls als Spartakusaufstand bezeichnet, obwohl der Spartakusbund bzw.